Types of teratozoospermia

Men with a high rate of abnormal sperm are diagnosed with teratozoospermia. There are different criteria to classify the types.

Rate of normal sperm

The number of normal spermatozoa is assessed through a morphological examination. Only those with a perfect shape are taken into account.

Counting normal spermatozoa

All the sperm with a defect (in head, mid-piece or tail) are discarded. After the publication in 2010 by WHO of a guide with the reference values of seminal quality, it was established that normality would be starting from 4%. As the value is very low, it doesn’t make much sense talking about teratospermia according to the quantity of normal sperm. In this way, when we talk about teratospermia, we use the Kruger criteria, stricter than the previous one by taking as minimum reference value 15% of normal sperm.

  • Mild teratozoospermia: the number of normal spermatozoa ranges from 14% to 10%.
  • Moderate teratozoospermia: between 9% and 5% of spermatozoa are normal.
  • Severe teratozoospermia: very few spermatozoa have a good morphology, less than 5%.

Teratozoospermia index

Using the sperm sample collected from the patient, a Papanicolau stain is performed in order to observe the spermatozoa and identify what kind of anomaly a spermatozoon has.


The teratozoospermia index is calculated using the following formula:
Teratozoospermia index = ( c + p + q ) / x

    c = head malformations.
    p = neck or mid-piece malformations.
    q = tail malformations.
    x = abnormal amount of spermatozoa.

The index ranges from 1 to 3. 1 refers to anomalies in one area only and 3 is for malformations in the head, neck and tail.

Sperm deformity index

It is calculated through the same formula above, with the only difference that in this index, the total amount of sperm is taken into account. In the previous equation, x refers to the total amount of sperm, regardless their morphology.


  1. avatar
    marwa ramadan

    Please, help me understand my husband’s sperm analysis:
    The TZI was 1.44 and SDI was 1.29

    Normal sperm 17.23
    Teratospermia 82.80

  2. avatar
    Shrikant gund

    Sir i have done my semen analysis and have 79 M/ml and have morphology 10% normal forms. We have been trying during the last 2 yrs for pregnancy but not succeeded yet. Is my semen analysis normal?

    • avatar

      what is your total motility… your count and morphology is within the range

  3. avatar
    John olegario

    How bout me sir.. can u pls tell me, advices to know my situation? I have 4%morphology and the remark is teratozoospermia.

  4. avatar

    Hi… sir plz tell me if the sperm count and motility is normal… just morphology is 2.5% so is it possible to treat? And what is the best option for treatment? Plz, plz help me.

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