Most of the times, the causes behind teratozoospermia are unknown.
It is presumed that the morphological alterations are produced in the last stage of spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis is the process of sperm production. In the last phase of spermiogenesis, sperm with the genetic content already formed go through a maturation process followed by the release of
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy alter sperm production, so these treatments can induce teratozoospermia. Accordingly. men are advised to keep a frozen sperm sample in case they wish to be fathers once they have overcome the disease.
In like manner, pharmaceutical drugs that interact with testosterone, FSH and GnRH levels may affect sperm production, impeding their proper maduration and eventually causing teratozoospermia.
Other possible causes are:
- Semen infections
- Traumas or other testicular problems
- Diabetes mellitus
- High fever
- Alcohol and drug abuse
Lastly, it should be taken into account that teratozoospermia is reversible, specially if it is associated with stressful events and high fevers. If a second analysis (to be performed a few months later), still shows morphological alterations, these are most likely due to associated diseases. Teratozoospermia may be a genetic problem if any of the aforementioned causes is responsible for the alterations. This is the most severe scenario.