What is teratozoospermia?

Teratozoospermia, also known as teratospermia, is a semen alteration in which there is a large number of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology.

It is a sperm condition that may lead to serious consequences, such as male infertility. The sperm parameter that is compromised is sperm morphology.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) offers guidelines to evaluate semen parameters (some examples of these parameters are concentration, motility, or morphology). The values set by WHO can be used to determine normality, so if the value of a given semen parameter is below the reference, it may suggest a sperm pathology.

With regard to teratozoospermia, the shape of the spermatozoon is assessed. Formerly, teratozoospermia was diagnosed if 14% of the sperm had a normal shape. In 2010, WHO updated its reference values, and now a man only has to meet a 5% rate of properly shaped spermatozoa to be within normality.

Therefore, in order to diagnose teratozoospermia by the current standards, a man has to show a high rate of dysfunctional spermatozoa; more than 96% of his spermatozoa have to be morphologically abnormal.

This alteration produces male infertility since unproportioned spermatozoa or with odd morphology are unable to swim in the right way; consequently, they have it harder to reach the egg. Even if they make it, they still have to penetrate the egg, so anomalies in the head may hamper this action.

Depending on the degree of affectation, it can hinder getting pregnant naturally to a greater or lesser extent.

Male-related fertility problems account for 30%-50% of the couples that are trying to conceive naturally. The assessment of a man’s fertility begins with a seminogram, followed by a MSC tests (motile sperm count). Once the diagnosis of teratozoospermia is confirmed, the couple has several alternatives to achieve pregnancy.

This webpage shall give you all the information regarding this condition: types, treatment, chances for pregnancy, related conditions, etc. You can easily find all this information by just following the menu that is located at the left side of this page.


  1. Antioxidants are not effective alone in the management of teratozoospermia.

  2. Hello Sir, I am 35 years old and my recent semen analysis showed that:

    concentration-131 m/ml
    normal forms-2%
    sperm deformity index-2.28
    teratozoospermic index-2.32

    Please let me know if there is any concern for pregnancy and if any treatment is required.

    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Dear David,

      your sperm morphology is altered, only 2% of sperm presents normal forms. This may hinder your chances of getting pregnant naturally.

      There exist vitamin and antioxidant supplements that may improve the quality of your sperm. However, if there’s no improvement, you should consider turning to IVF or AI (artificial insemination). With 2% of normal forms, the most advisable option is IVF.


      • My husband’s morphology results were:

        % normal – 4.3%
        % head defects- 95.8%
        % mid-piece – 15.3%
        % tail defects – 10.5%

        What does this mean for us?

        • Sandra F.
          inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

          Hello Elizabeth,

          Although these results indicate that your husband is close to the boundary line, by the moment his results are all fine, as his % normal is above 4%.

          I hope I have been able to help,


  3. Hello,

    My husband’s sperm morphology was abnormal. Count was 9 million, motility 2% and our RE said that he has pin head sperms in all of the sample. We are scheduled to see a Urologist. Are there any options to treat this condition?

  4. My husband has 3% normal sperm although he is on Tamoxifen which has improved the count and motility to 65% and 20 million, but the morphology still remains 3%. The sperm is also watery. Can we achieve pregnancy naturally because our first year of trial is over and now we’re in second year of trial.

    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Hello opy,

      Achieving a natural pregnancy is more complicated with teratozoospermia, since only 3% sperm are normal shaped, with the rest being abnormal and therefore unable to fertilize an egg. Vitamin supplements and antioxidants can be helpful of course, but if even with that your husband’s semen analysis doesn’t improve, you should turn to assisted reproduction to have a child.

      Best regards

  5. Hi,

    My husband results came back as:

    Normal – 2%
    Amorphic – 97%
    Tails – 17
    Neck -2
    No. of spermatozoa – 40

    Does this mean we will never fall pregnant traditionally? And AI is the only way? Can this be cured through meds or surgery?

    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Dear Alice,

      I’m afraid with only 2% of normal spermatozoa, achieving a natural pregnancy is rather difficult. I’m not saying it’s impossible, but the truth is, amorphous sperms are unable to fertilize an egg. Achieving it or not will depend fundamentally on the cause behind teratospermia. For this reason, in some cases it may improve by taking vitamin supplements; however, if not, you’ll have to turn to IUI or IVF.

      Best wishes

  6. Hello,

    I am 36 years old. My recent semen dated 03-05-2016 shows this result. Married in 2014.

    Appearance: milky white
    Transparency: translucent
    Self liquification: occurred in 20 minutes
    Viscicity: normal
    Volume: 5 ml
    Fructose: positive
    No. of spermatozoa per ml: 48 million
    Total No. of sperms per ejaculate: 240 million
    Viability : 60% spermatozoa alive at the end of 1/2 hours

    – after 1/2 hours: A 20% / B 30% / A+B 50% / non-progressive 5%
    – after 2 hours: A 10% / B 25% / 35% / 3%

    Active sperms in the ejaculate (at the end of 1/2 hour): 120 million
    Total No. of abnormal spermatozoa: 66%
    Epithelial cells: squamous type
    Macrophage cells: occasional
    Puss cell: occasional
    Candida: nil
    Red blood cell: nil
    Trichomonads: nil
    Precursors (approximate number per ml): occasional
    Spermatogonia: …%
    Spermatocycles: …%
    Spermatids: …%
    Cells in spermiogenesis: …%
    Granular debris: present +
    Crystal: …
    Agglutination of sperm: …
    Grams stain: no pathogen seen

    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Hello Jafar,

      All parameters analyzed in your semen analysis present normal values. Your semen is perfectly viable 🙂

  7. Dear Dr. Sandra,

    I did my seminal fluid analysis in a local hospital and following are its results:

    Liquefaction time: 30 min
    Color: off white
    Consistency: liquid
    Volume: 4 ml
    pH: 8.0
    Count: 25 million/ml
    Motility: 70%
    Rapid forward movement: 0%
    Normal forward movement: 10%
    Sluggish forward & circular movement: 50%
    No forward movement: 10%
    Acrosome: Normal
    Morphology: 1%
    Head abnormalities: 74%
    Neck / Mid piece defect: 15%
    Tail Defects: 10%
    Agglutination: Nil
    Immature cells: 0%
    Leukocytes: 1-2/HPF

    Based on these figures, I would like to know your feedback as per your convenience. If there’s any issue, then what measures can be taken to rectify them at the earliest?

    Your early response in this matter will be highly appreciated. Thank you.

    Best regards,


    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Hello Salim,

      After analyzing your results, I can see that sperm motility is altered (only 10% of progressive sperm), which is a typical figure in cases of asthenozoospermia. Besides, with just 1% of normal forms, it is also a case of severe teratozoospermia.

      I hope I have been able to help,


  8. mariecris santos

    Dear Dr. Sandra,

    My husband’s result are as follows:

    Viscosity: viscuos
    Volume: 2.00ml
    Concentration: 28 million/ml
    Motile sperm:
    – A motility: 20.0%
    – B motility: 36.0%
    – C motility: 44.0%
    Morphology: 3.0% normal forms

    Comments: viscuos, teratozoospermic sample

    Does this mean we will never fall pregnant traditionally? And AI is the only way? Can this be cured through meds or surgery?

    Please help us analyze the result, and what can we do for it?

    Many thanks

  9. Dear Dr. Sandra,

    I did my semen analysis at a local hospital and the following are its results:

    99% abnormal forms
    Amorphous and tapered heads, residual cytoplasm, bent neck and pyriform head.

    Your early response on this matter will be highly appreciated. Thank you.

    Best regards,


    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Hello Angelo,

      In cases like yours, the only treatment of choice is IVF/ICSI. Please, have a look at the following post to get details on this assisted reproductive technology (ART): Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI).

      Best regards

      • Dear Dr. Sandra,

        Thank you for your response, actually I am confused. I only have 1% normal sperm (Teratozoospermia) but someone is claiming that I have a child, she is 1 year old now.
        Is it possible?

        Thank you for your response in advance.

  10. Dear Dr,

    My report says I have:

    1. Sperm concentration: 150 Million
    2. Rapid progression: 10%
    3. Slow progression: 55%
    4. Non-progression: 5%
    5. Immotile: 30%
    6. Vitality: 82%

    1. Normal :1%
    2. Head defect: 67
    3. Acrosome defect: 16
    4. Neck defect: 6
    5. Tail defect: 11

    Liquefaction: 30 min
    Volume: 2.2 ml

    My wife and I have been trying to conceive for one year. Is there any chance to get pregnant naturally? What is the next option?

    Best regards

  11. Hi. My husband’s SA came back with 2% morphology and the teratozospermic index is 1.46. I had a chemical pregnancy in December but we couldn’t get pregnant again after this. My husband also had to go on prophylactic HIV treatment for a blood spatter. Does this affect the SA and will we ever get pregnant?

    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Hi Natania,

      If it occurred a few months ago, the prophylactic HIV treatment for a blood spatter could’ve altered the results of your semen analysis. You can take supplements now, and take another SE in a few months to see if the results continue to be altered or have returned to normal. If they continue to be altered, you are advised to turn to assisted reproductive technology (ART).

      Best wishes

  12. Hi, I am very stressed right now because my doctor told me that I have high abnormal sperm count and won’t be able to make my wife pregnant naturally in reasonable time and I may have to do IVF. Everything except morphology appears fine. I still believe my results are fine but need your opinion, please:

    Semen Analysis:

    Volume: 3.5 ml
    Ph: 8.0
    viscosity: 3+ marked
    Motility: 80%
    Sperm Density: 61 million/ML
    200 Sperms Counted
    15% Normal
    85% Abnormal
    (lab references, morphology classification WHO 3rd Edition)

    Lab reference says: 25% is normal morphology

    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Hello peter,

      According to the last classification of the WHO (fifth edition, year 2010), all your values correspond to those of a fertile man. From 4% normal sperm onwards, it is considered to be a correct result.

      Best regards

  13. Hello madam,

    Below are my semen analysis report results:

    Sperm Count: 75 millions
    Total Ejaculation: 187 millions
    Live: 68%
    Days of absence: 4 days
    Rapid-progressive Type IV – 8 % (1 Hour) and 0% (4 hours)
    Slow-progressive Type III – 46 % (1 Hour) and 28% (4 Hours)
    Non-progressive Type II – 21 % ( 1 hour) and 32 % (4 Hours)
    Immotile Type I – 25% (Hour) and 40% (4 hours)

    Normal Forms: 2%
    Overall Defects: 98%
    TZI Index: 2
    Cytoplasmic: 15%

    Head Defects: 93%
    Mid Piece and neck defects: 92%
    Total Defects: 13%
    Defects in head, mid-piece and neck: 93%
    Defects in mid-piece, Neck and tail: 54%
    Defects in Head and tail: 53%

    HOS: 58%
    Acrosome intactness: 20%

    Please, let us know whether my wife can conceive with my sperms or not.

    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Hello ss1234,

      Only 2% of normal forms indicates this is a case of teratozoospermia. With teratozoospermia, the chances of conceiving naturally are low, so you may consider turning to assisted reproductive technology. In your case, ICSI is not necessary in principle as you have 2% normal forms, and ICSI is indicated when less than 1% of sperms are normal. IVF (in vitro fertilization) would be the fertility treatment of choice in your case.

      I hope I have been able to help,

      Best regards

  14. Dear Dr. Sandra,

    Thank you for your response, actually I am confused. I only have 1% normal sperm (Teratozoospermia) but someone is claiming that I have a child, she is 1 year old now.

    Is this possible?

    Thank you for your response in advance.

    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Hello Angelo,

      Sorry, I don’t quite understand your query. Could you please give me additional details?


  15. Dr Sandra,

    Please find my report:

    Abstinence Days: 3 days
    Volume: 2 ml
    Time of collection: 8:00 AM
    Time of evaluation: 8:35 AM
    Pus cells: 2-4/hpf
    Ph: 8.0
    Live: 60%
    Dead: 40%
    Sperm Agglutination: ++
    Liquefaction: Normal
    Total Ejaculate: 76 Million
    Sperm (Mill/ml): 38 Mill/ml
    Motility Assessment (1 hour)
    Total Progressive: 35%
    Non Progressive: 11%
    Immotile: 54%
    Total Motility: 46%
    Rapid Progressive: 04% (As per CASMA)
    Slow Progressive – 31%
    Normal Forms: 02%
    Over all Defects: 98%
    Head Defects: 74%
    Tail Defects: 14%
    Mid-piece and neck defects: 3%
    Multiple Defects – 7%

    I had 3rd grade varicose veins on left before this report and my Dr done microsurgery. My Dr said after 2-3 months we can have a normal pregnancy. Can u suggest me on this?

    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Hello John,

      When did you have the microsurgery done? I need this data to provide you with an accurate report. Anyway, your semen analysis shows this is a case of teratozoospermia. My advice is that you wait for the time interval your doctor suggested (2-3 months) and then try to get a natural pregnancy. If it doesn’t occur, you may need to turn to IVF to achieve so.

      Best wishes

      • Dr Sandra,

        My surgery was done 3 weeks ago and it’s all set, and I am using vitamin tablets for 2 months and one antibiotic for 30 days. Has varicose impacted my morphology?

        • Sandra F.
          inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

          Hello again John,

          Thx for your clarification. Now I understand your case! Spermatogenesis (i.e. sperm production) takes around 2-3 months, so it is still too early to see any improvements on your results. My advice, as I said on my previous comment, is that you wait at least a couple of months. In principle, both the microsurgery and the vitamins you’re taking should help you improve the results.

          I hope this helps,

          Best Wishes

  16. Dear Dr. Sandra,

    My brother has a child with his ex girlfriend. Last March, 2016 he did a semen analysis and he got a result of 99% abnormal and 1 normal sperm (Teratozoospermia).

    Is it possible to have this result even if he has history of having a child from his past relationship?

    Thank you for your response in advance.

    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Hello Angelo,

      How old is his child now? If a few years have gone by, teratozoospermia can appear over time. Changes in dietary habits, smoking, consuming greater amounts of alcohol, being on drugs, or certain illnesses may lead to teratozoospermia.

  17. Hi Sandra,

    My Strict Morphology is 1% Normal
    Sperm concentration 92 mil/mL
    156 ml/ejaculation
    Round cells: 3.3 mil/mL
    WBC: 1.0 mil/mL

    In my teens I got my girlfriend pregnant, but that was 20 years ago. About a year ago my strict morphology was 3%. I used to smoke marijuana daily. I stopped smoking after the first test, a year ago. I thought my percentage would increase but sadly it went the other way. I do drink daily now.

    If I stop drinking and take vitamins/supplements, do you think I can improve my percentage? If so, what vitamins and supplements do you recommend?


    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Hi Jes,

      As you may know, toxic habits such as smoking or drinking daily are detrimental for semen quality. So, my advice is that you do not smoke anymore, or drink alcohol. Instead, take vitamins and supplements that help you improve your semen quality.

      In addition, I can see the presence of white blood cells (WBC) in your semen sample is high (1.0 mil/mL), and therefore this is a case of leukospermia. In these cases, the most common is that there is some infection, too. Certain vitamin supplements may help you boost your sperm quality. The following article will give you more info on this: Diet to improve spermatozoa.

      I hope I have been able to help,


  18. Thank you for your reply Dr. Sandra,

    His child is 1 year old now. He did semen analysis last March 2016, the result is 99% abnormal and 1% normal (teratozoospermia).

  19. Hi Sandra,

    Today I did a semen analysis, and my morphology results are:

    Normal sperm=01%
    Head defect=94%
    Neck defect =80%
    Tail defect =35%
    C.D defect=02%
    Teratozoodpermia index= 2.1
    Sperm count=58millions/ml
    Total sperm count=116millions/ejc
    Fructose test=positive

    Are there any chances of getting my wife pregnant naturally? Will taking medicines improve my sperm quality? Please advice.



    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Hello Raj,

      With only 1% normal sperms, getting your wife pregnant naturally may be complicated. With vitamins and antiox, results may improve, so give them a try. Try taking it during 2-3 months and then repeat the test to see if it worked. If not, an ICSI would become necessary.

      Best regards

  20. Hello! My first SA came back as a shock. I am 32 years old. I smoke, I rarely drink, eat as healthy as I can and exercise often. 0% normal shape, 100% abnormal head, 16 abnormal neck, 8% abnormal tail. 4 days absence, 2.25 ml, and 321.75 mil/ejaculated. Total mobility 70%, progressive mobility 61%. Can I significantly improve my sperm quality somehow? Or my only option is assistance? Thank you.

    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Dear JohnT,

      No normally shaped sperm are found, but the remaining parameters are ok. You can take vitamin supplements and improve your habits for a few months, quitting smoking above all. Then, after a reasonable period of time, repeat the SE to see if the results have improved. If not, the only chance would be assisted conception.


  21. Hello Doc, my husband has collected his semen analysis and this is the result:

    Viscosity: n/s
    Liquefaction: 30
    Volume: 4.4
    pH: 8.5
    Density: 101.0
    Total motility: 49%
    – Progressive:42%
    – Non-progressive:7%
    Round cells: 0.9%
    Agglutination: none
    Vitality: 60%
    Debris: n/s
    Normal forms: 2%
    Immature: few
    WBC: 2.0
    Total sperm count: 444.4×10 to the 6 power
    Total motile sperm count: 217.756×10 to the 6 power

    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Hello Lea,

      What is the measurement unit of WBC 2.0 (white blood cells)? Are you talking about a percentage, millions, cells…? I cannot give you an accurate diagnosis without it. If it stands for 2.0 million/ml there may be an infection, which could be easily cured with a treatment for this type of infections while at the same time taking vitamin supplements. If after that results haven’t improved, you may go for an ICSI cycle.

      Ask your doctor for the most appropriate treatment for WBC infection.

      Best regards

      • Hello Dr. Sandra,

        Thx for the reply. As what I have seen in result WBC 2.0 it’s reference value (WHO) and it is equal to WBC/100 sperm cells. And when the doctor read the result she said its ok because the important thing is the total motility of the sperm. My question now: is that ok?

  22. Hi doctor,

    I have one girl child, 3 years old.

    We’re trying for second child so we got my husband’s semen analysis. Can you please suggest on the results below?

    Appearance – opalescent
    Liquefaction time – 30min
    Volume – 3.0 ml
    Motility – 72%
    PR – 62%
    NP – 10%
    Morphology – 02%
    Vitality – 76%
    Immotile – 28%
    Total sperm count- 233.28m/ejac
    Total functional motile sperms – 4.66 m/ejac
    Sperm deformity index – 2.24
    Teratozoospermia index – 2.28

    Can you please suggest on the report?

    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.


      2% normal sperm morphology translated into teratozoospermia. You can try taking vitamin supplements for a few months and then repeat the SE to see if the results improve. If not, you may need to undergo ICSI.

      Best regards

  23. Arowolo Oluwaseun

    Hi doctor, here’s my husband result:

    Motile 35%
    Progressive 15%
    Non progressive 08%
    Sluggish 12%
    Non motile 65%
    Normal sperm cells 40%
    Abnormal sperm cells 60%
    Enlarged middle piece 25%
    Broken neck 15%
    Big head 15%
    Coiled tail 5%
    Total sperm count: 0.5 million cells

    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Hello Arowolo,

      Taking into account your husband’s results, on the one hand he has asthenozoospermia (poor motility) and severe oligospermia (very low sperm count). He would need to turn to FIV/ICSI to conceive.

      Best regards

  24. Hi Sandra,

    I went to my local hospital to have a semen analysis test, as me and my wife are trying to have a baby. Below are my results:

    Volume produced 4.9 ml (1.5)
    pH 8.1 (0-14)
    Viscosity: Normal
    Concentration 175mill/ml (15mill/ml)
    Total sperm/ejaculate 857.5 mill(39)
    Liquefacation: complete
    Agglutination: No
    Appearance: Normal

    Non-progressive: 4%
    Total No.of progressively motile sperm/ejaculate: 454.475mill(32mill)
    TotalNo. Motile/ml:92.75ml(15mill/ml)
    Morphology:2%Normal(>4% Normal)
    Round cells: Yes 2mill/ml

    Interpretation of test results said Teratozoospermia, but below in the comments section said: “of doubtful clinical significance”.

    Can you please tell me what these test results mean as I am 44 yrs old, my wife is 36 yrs old, and we would love to have a baby. Earliest reply much appreciated,


    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Dear Muhammad,

      Given that you have only 2% of normal sperm, this is a case of teratozoospermia, yes. My advice is that you take vitamin supplements for 2-3 months and then take another semen analysis to check if it has improved with the supplements. If not, you should turn to IVF to have a baby. Please, take a look at the following post, as it may be of interest: Foods to boost sperm quality.

      I hope this helps,


  25. Hi Doctor, my age is 32 and I am waiting for a child from last 4 yrs. Doctor diagnosed me with teratozoospermia. Also, I don’t have any habits, regular diet, 5.4 height, 70 weight, now medicated with LIMCEE and SUPRADYN.

    Kindly suggest me on this, how to go forward?

    Please, find the below report of sperm DNA report values:

    Concentration: 143.80 M/ml
    Sperm Number: 287.60 M/sample
    Progressive (PR): 51.04 %
    Motile: 69.50 %
    Morphology: 2.00 %
    Head Area: Avg: 8.11, immotile: 7.35, Slow; 9.22, Medium: 8.45, rapid: 7.83
    Round Cells: 34 m/ml
    Curve Speed: Avg 36.91
    Linier Speed: Avg 20.01
    Amplitude Lateral Head: Avg 2.54
    Beat Frequency: Avg 4.32

    Morphologic Values:

    Normal Size: Total 34
    Micro: Total 66
    Normal Shape: Total 87

    Teratozoospermia Index: 1.55
    Deformity Index: 2.07

    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Hello RaghuD,

      According to your SE results, this is a case of teratospermia (2% normal sperm). Also your percentage of round cells is quite high (34 m/ml). Since you’re already taking vitamin supplements, continue to do so for at least 3 months and then take another SE to see if the results have improved.

      Best regards

      • Hi Doctor,

        First of all thanks for your time and reply. I have done the test on 04/06/2016.

        Volume : 2ml
        Viscocity : 0
        Liquification Time : 30 min
        Ph :7.5 alkaline
        Sperm Count ( mill / ml ) 92
        total Sperm Ejaculation ( mil ) : 184
        Motility : 66 %
        Activity % 14 (Rapid ) 17 ( Moderate ) 22 (slow) 13 ( Sluggish )
        PUS Cells : 1-2 /hpf
        Epithelical Cells ( NILL )
        RBC’s Cells (NILL )

        Morphology : Normal (4%) Abnormal (96%)

        Head Mid Piece tail

        Amorphous :10 Cytoplasmic droplet : 7 Coiled Tail : 6
        Elongated : 8 Short Tail :13
        Pyriform : 8 Hair Pin Tail : 11
        Macrocephalic :6 Double Tail : 4
        Microcephalic : 8
        Broken neck : 10
        Double Head : 5

        Please look into the report and let me know. I can see there is an improvement from 2-4, hence can I wait for some more time to get a natural pregnancy or do I have to go for ICSI/PICSI methods? Kindly suggest me from this front. Also I didn’t get your point regarding the percentage of round cells is quite high (34 m/ml) in previous report. Is this good or bad? Yes, I am using the tablets from last 50 days and am continuing the same.

        Thanks for your great help here,

        Raghu D

  26. Hi doctor,

    my sperm count is 90 million/ml
    Motility 35%
    Normal 30%
    Round head 30%

    Am I capable of making my wife pregnant? My age is 33 years old.

    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Dear Papu,

      I am afraid you’ve given me very little information for me to give you an accurate diagnosis – for example, what is your motility index? This is material information for me. However, your sperm concentration and sperm morphology are normal.

      I hope this helps,


  27. Below is my result , please advise shall I go for the IVF or we can wait for the natural birth

    PH – 7.6
    volume – 2.0
    progressive Motiliy – 43

    Viability – 79
    sperm concentration – 19.0
    round cells – 0.6
    white blood cells – 0

    Normal – 1L
    Head – piece defects – 62
    mid – piece defects – 23H
    tail piece defects – 14
    normal motile sper count – 0.082L


    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Dear Alex,

      Which unity of measurement is “L”? For example, “Normal – 1L”? Do you mean %? I’ve never seen that before. If it is a %, then you’ve got sever teratozoospermia, and you may need IVF/ICSI to have a baby.


  28. Dear Dr.,

    Please, find my numbers below from a recent semen analysis report:

    Volume: 2.4 ml
    Liquefaction: 20 minutes
    Viscosity: Normal
    Appearance: Grey-opaque
    Ph: Alkaline

    Sperm Concentration: 42 mil/ml
    Total count: 100.8 millions
    Total Motility: 58%
    a. Progressive 52% / Active 00% / Sluggish 52%
    b. Non progressive 06%
    c. Non motile 42%

    Normal: 03%
    Abnormal: 97%
    Head defects: 48%
    Neck and mid-piece defects: 32%
    Tail defects: 17%

    Please, let me know your analysis on the values. Whether I will be able to have a baby in a normal way?

    Best Regards

    • Sandra F.
      inviTRA's ModeratorSandra F.

      Dear fblr,

      Given that you’ve got only 3% normal sperm, this is a case of teratozoospermia. But the remaining parameters are fine. As this is not a case of severe teratozoospermia, you can take vitamin supplements to see if your results improve with them. If not, you could give an AIH (artificial insemination by husband) a try. Check this out for further info: Artificial insemination by husband (AIH).

      I hope I have been able to help,


  29. Thanks Sandra, keep in prayer we will try for IVF.


  30. Abstinance (Days) -7 Days
    Interval between ejaculation and start of analysis (min)-15 min
    Volume (ml)-6ml
    Liquefaction (min)-20 min
    Count/ml – 20 million/ml
    Count in ejaculate – 120 million/ejaculate
    RLP – 05%
    Progressive 55%
    Immotile – 40%
    Morphology (%)
    Normal – 2%
    Head Defect -25%
    Neck Defect- 25%
    Tail Defect – 25%
    Cytoplasmic Droplet -15%
    Vitality – 75%

    Please, let me know your analysis on the values. Whether I will be able to have a baby in a normal way?


  31. Hi Doctor – Went to doctor and I’m very stressed about morphology… Searching on Internet does not seem to give an acceptable range for abnormal headcount. Doctor referred me to a urologist. He said all looks good except head count. But he said he do not want to speculate and let urologist look into it:

    Volume ml: 3.5
    Sperm Concentration (M/ml): 70.0
    Total Sperm Count (M): 245.0

    Motility within 1 hour
    Rapid Progressive %: 50 (ref 25%) or
    Slow Progressive %: 2
    Non Progressive %: 2
    Immotile%: 46
    Vitality%: 86

    Morphology (WHO Classification)
    Kruger NormalForms % (>= 5%: Nomal)
    Abnormal Heads %: 95
    AbnormalMidpiece %: 27
    AbnormalTails %: 25
    Cytoplasmic Droplets %: 0

    Thanks in advance!

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